Monday, June 8, 2020

Abdulla Al-Emadi Essay - 550 Words

Abdulla Al-Emadi (Essay Sample) Content: Abdulla Al-EmadiProfessorClassDateEpistemologyEpistemology is the study of knowledge. Its main argument revolves around how to differentiate real knowledge from the false knowledge. Epistemology has given rise to so many theories, most trying to explore the relationship between it and the scientific methodology. Today, this questions gives rise to various theories which bring issues to the scientific methodology because of the new concept of cognition; artificial intelligence. This has been developed through the approach of information processing where computer programs compete with the human mindà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s capacity of learning and using knowledge. In the early theories, knowledge was known as a straight and simple permanent character but following contradiction the later theories emphasized on the continuous development and dependence on situations.There are many theories that exist about what knowledge is and how it is acquired. These theories are always in conf lict due to their belief, justification and the real facts about knowledge. The Greek philosopher Plato was of the opinion that knowledge is absolute. Aristotle on his part chose a different path and analyzed knowledge on the basis of how it is acquired. According to him, there are two ways through which knowledge is acquired. They are empiricism and rationalism. Empiricism refers to knowledge which is gained from sensory perception, and rationalism refers to knowledge gained from rational reflection.From their definitions, it is clear that the two approaches contradict yet they are based on individualà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s experiences. The theory evaluates the sense of experience and examines the extent to which experience contributes in gaining knowledge. Rationalists argue that there is some knowledge that we get without experience. They back this up by the fact that there is some information we have that cannot be experienced or proved to be true yet it is. This means that the said info rmation was acquired through other methods rather than experience. They also construct scenarios where reason gives additional information that cannot be experienced.Priori and Posteriori are two terms that are used to distinguish between knowledge, justification and an argument. Priori knowledge is does not really on experience. This is a generally accepted truth that does not require any science to prove (Sommers and Tamler, 2003). For example, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"all bachelors are unmarried.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ This is a fact and a statement which is told to an individual when young and he does not need to experience it to believe it. It is just evident because it is the natural way that things are. It can not be changed. Priori knowledge is gained through teaching and is usually understood rather than proven. The main distinction in priori and posteriori is that priori knowledge can be gained prior to having experience whereas posteriori depends on experience entirely (Casullo, 2003)There ha s been ranging debate on whether priori knowledge is there during birth. Priori knowledge is innate. However, children have...

Sunday, May 17, 2020

The Financial Crisis Of 1907 - 1660 Words

Prior to the crisis in 1907, banks were considered full service financial institutions. In the year 1913, the Federal Reserve System was created by congress to help stabilize the financial market by acting as the lender of last resort to the banking institutions. Nonetheless the great depression still hit the economy between 1929 and 1933 which led to the stock market crash and market share value decrease by 80%. By the 1980s, the economy had stabilized again and there was increase in computer analysis, electronic information transfer, increased importance of global markets and deregulation of financial institutions. The financial crisis of 2007 and 2009 was the worst since the great depression. It was not a single event but a series of crises whose seeds had been planted in yet another recession of 2001 and the era of the internet bubble years earlier (Bodie, Kane, Marcus, 2011). One of the reasons for the crisis was the rise in subprime lending. Subprime loans were offered to individuals who did not qualify for prime rate loans and carried a higher rate of interest than prime loans (Gilbert, 2011). Another reason behind the subprime mortgage crisis is argued to have been due to the lack of ethics and poor policies such as the Goldman rule which encouraged pursuit of profitable opportunities irrespective of the effects on others (Watkins, 2011). In this paper, I will briefly define financial markets, outline types of financial markets and orders and trading mechanisms inShow MoreRelatedThe 1907 Financial Panic and the 2008 Financial Crisis1931 Words   |  8 Pagesof 1907. Almost exactly 100 y ears after the financial crisis of 1907, the poem known as The United States economy, holds a stanza rhyming it with the 2008 financial crisis. The tail of these two events is compared to better understand the elements in an effort to rhyme the next line of the poem with a new set of syllables. Before understanding these elements, a financial crisis is defined as â€Å"A situation in which the value of financial institutions or assets drops rapidly. A financial crisis is oftenRead MoreThe House of Morgan: an American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance by Ron Chernov957 Words   |  4 PagesUnited States. In the baronial age it was the Panic of 1907. In the diplomatic age it was the passage of the Glass-Steagall act of 1933. In the casino age it was the development of merchant banking and leveraged buyouts that led to the Crash of 1987. J. Pierpont Morgan’s actions during the Panic of 1907 solidified the bank’s reputation and firmly established it as the most powerful and influential bank of its era. The stock market crash in 1907 spurned both a run on banks as people tried to withdrawRead MoreThe Federal Reserve Essay695 Words   |  3 Pageseconomic problems. The Panics of 1873 and 1907 brought attention to the need for reform. In 1873, there was a currency dispute. During the Civil War, people had largely used paper money; this type of money is essentially worthless because banks did not have the means to back it. Americans wanted to return to the gold standard. The financial crisis in 1907 occurred because there was no central bank. The New York Stock Exchange fell dramatically, and financial troubles in New Yorks leading banks ledRead MoreBailouts Effect on Economy770 Words   |  3 PagesAlmost 1.2 trillion dollars were spent on bailing out the various banks in the 2008 financial crisis. First, what bailouts are is explained. Then, the history of bailouts in the US is told. Finally, the effects of the recent bailouts are analyzed. Because billions of dollars are spent on bailouts, they need to be understood by the public by knowing their history and their effects on the economy to ensure informed decisions in the future on whether o r not banks should be allowed to fail. A bailoutRead MoreHistory Of Centralized Banking System1752 Words   |  8 Pagesspecial emphasis on the First and the Second banks of America and the inception of the Federal banking system. Highlighted also are the circumstances that led to the established of the financial organs alongside the relevance of the Federal Reserve today (Fischer, 2015). The topic directly impacts on how financial crisis and all the economic challenges are being handled today. The Federal Reserve is still the one which regulates all the fiscal activities of America. The Federal Reserve refers to theRead MoreThe Return Of Depression Economics And The Crisis977 Words   |  4 PagesIn his book The Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of 2008 Krugman examines the economic crisis of 2008. He asserts that there were many tale tell signs and warnings throughout history that could have mitigated the crisis. Krugman contends that through history all financial crisis had common elements. The panic of 1907, the Great Depression, the Savings and Loan problems in the 1980’s, the Latin American Crisis and the Asian Crisis of the 1990’s all shared the same pre-story. Each hadRead MoreThe Federal Reserve : An American Version Of A Central Bank1093 Words   |  5 Pageslose its value. The Federal Reserve assesses labor and market conditions, inflation pressures and expectations, and financial and international developments to support continued progress. U.S. Monetary Policy Monetary policy, to a certain extent, can be viewed as the management of expectations. Most developed nations use a central bank to manage these expectations, oversee its financial system and implement its monetary policy. The Federal Reserve System was established by Congress as an AmericanRead MoreA Study On The Chinese Of The National Network Of China Has Once Produced A Popular Tv Show1485 Words   |  6 Pages(Chinadaily, 2014), people feel happier as they made more money; the report from Financial Times also suggested that average incomes of Chinese have more than tripled over the past decade (Docin, 2015). Here comes the question, there is a tendency of the society is in an atmosphere of chasing wealth, money comes first, which directly or indirectly caused a serious of severe issues, the corruption, the food safety, the moral crisis and so on, the worst of all, people seems to be accustomed to the ScandalsRead MoreThe Federal Reserve And Financial Crisis With The United Stat es Essay1231 Words   |  5 PagesThe Federal Reserve and Financial Crisis with the United States: Strategical Economic Decision Making in the Face of Crisis Historical Structure of the Federal Reserve In the year 1776, the Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, which proclaimed that the new United States of America would govern independently from Great Britain and it’s King. Prompted by unfavorable social protocols, economic policy, and biased tax principles, America began its journey of self-regulation. WithRead MoreThe Federal Reserve1337 Words   |  6 PagesReserve has proven to benefit American banks and remains a key component of the mechanism with which government stabilizes and regulates the economy. The American financial system before the Federal Reserve came along in 1913 was tragic. With the economy on the rise, growing rapidly with factories being built and technology upgrading, financial stability was needed. America’s economy in the late 1800’s even surpassed Germany and the U.K., economically speaking. At the time, the Aldrich plan was in effect

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Evaluation Of A Mini Reading Lesson Plan - 1300 Words

Module 9 Reflection 3 In this reflection paper the student was asked to write a mini reading lesson plan. 1. Name of Strategy: Teacher/Peer Modeling (Read Naturally Strategy, 2009) 2. Grade Level: Third Grade 3. Type of Disability: A student that needs this strategy to increase fluency would have trouble in one of the following areas: identifying words, decoding unknown words, knowing the meaning of words parts or proper use of phonics (Seder, n.d.). 4. Material/Reading Text: I chose this book because it has many words that can look difficult to the student, but can be easily sounded out as they read. This book would also fit into a theme of learning about â€Å"Frogs,† or it could be used while teaching a lesson on bullying, by having the students make the connection between the characters in the story and which ones are the bullies and which ones are good friends. †¢ The book: â€Å"Finklehopper Frog Cheers† by Irene Livingston (Livingston Lies, 2005) See Appendix A †¢ Paper †¢ Pencil 5. Arizona Career and College Ready Standard: †¢ (3.RF.3) Know and apply grade†level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. a. Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes. b. Decode words with common Latin suffixes. c. Decode multi-syllable words. d. Read grade†appropriate irregularly spelled (Arizona’s College and Career Ready Standards English Language Arts 3rd – 5th Grade, 2013, p. 16) †¢ (3.W.3) Write narratives to develop real orShow MoreRelatedA Detailed Lesson Plan-Developmental Reading1618 Words   |  7 PagesA Semi-detailed Lesson Plan in Developmental Reading I. Objectives At the end of the lesson, the students are expected to: a. Define reading b. Enumerate the types of reading c. Specify the purposes of reading d. Demonstrate the proper postures in oral reading II. Subject Matter Developmental Reading I References: 1. Developmental Reading I, Dr. Edisteo B. Bernardez Page 4-5 2. Developmental Reading, Dr. Angelita Romero Dr. Rene Romero III. Materials: Powerpoint presentation, video clips andRead MoreAnalyzing The Potential Energy And Kinetic Energy Of A Pendulum Essay838 Words   |  4 Pagesthe kinetic or potential energy at points 1 or 3 respectively. The kinetic energy at point 2 should be smaller than that at point 3. Performance Expectation and Evidence All students are expected to meet the objectives. The informal formative evaluations will indicate whether or not the students are making progress towards the targets. Using Assessment to Guide Instruction Any responses deviating from the expected will indicate misconceptions, which will be addressed. More time might be grantedRead MoreUse Of Cognition Through Intentional Thinking Essay2274 Words   |  10 Pages Reading Comprehension Dornan, Rosen and Wilson (1997) as cited in UWI (2016) defines reading as â€Å"the interplay between a reader’s mind and the printed text, assuming more active participation by the reader in making sense of the text (p. 69). Additionally, Tompkins (2010) notes that, â€Å"reading is a process in which readers comprehend and construct meaning (p. 46). Conversely, comprehension, is understanding what is read by the use of cognition through intentional thinking (UWI, 2016). For readingRead MoreJustification And Relevance Of Lesson Essay954 Words   |  4 PagesJustification and Relevance of Lesson Energy is the ability to do work. It has the potential to make changes, and any changes are due to work being done. This is significant because work can generate energy, and energy itself can do work (i.e., work done on windmills by the wind produces energy, and energy is used in homes to do work). Standards and Learning Objectives Content Learning Standards (s) HS-PS3-1: Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component inRead MoreDifferent Treatment Methods For Children With Learning Disabilities1310 Words   |  6 Pagesinteract with others, syntax – appropriate use of grammar, morphology – learning the important components of language, and phonology – utilizing the proper sounds to form words. 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ProgressRead MorePlanning and Enabling Learning/ Dtlls Unit 1 Essay1417 Words   |  6 Pagesenabling learning relates to the practical and theoretical side of teaching. How I am able to cater for the individual needs and to continually improve the educational development of the learners, through a positive scheme of work and transparent lesson plans. Negotiating with learnersInitial assessment is the key to finding out what the learners are capable of, what level are they working at and is the course suitable for them. So the assessment should look at existing skills, against the skills

Career Planning and Career Management

Question: Discuss about the Career Planning and Career Management. Answer: Introduction Organisational success depends on effective management and leadership. Therefore, the integral part of the human resource management strategy is the development of the leadership and management skills and capabilities among employees. This HR practice is the key element of learning and development strategy of an organisation (Armstrong and Taylor 2014). The paper examines the training and development activities of the Bank of Greece and Coca-Cola HBC AG in Greece. The paper highlights the effectiveness of the leadership and management development (LMD) interventions. The paper discusses the relationship between developing individual leadership and management skills and enhancing organisational performance. The paper performs secondary research for collecting the data about the area. Training and development In every organisation training development is important aspect related to achievement of organisation goals. Training and development of employees are essential in the organisation to achieve its aims, needs and aspirations. The term training refers to behavioural modification as a result of learning through instructions, education development and planned experience (Thorpe 2016). The term development refers to the general enhancement of an individuals abilities and skills through unconscious and conscious learning (Martins et al. 2016). The primary objective of training is to provide the organisation with better personnel. The process of training includes an investment of money and time on employees to improve their performance and motive them to give their best (Armstrong and Taylor 2014). The well planned and organised training programs have several benefits for both the organisation and the employees. It helps the trainees to achieve inward job satisfaction gained by delivering high performance, the outwards satisfaction gained through incentives, rewards and recognitions given by the company. Training and development of employees increase their career opportunities and reduces the employees turnover rate. It also increases the commitment of employees towards the organisation. When an employee delivers superior performance, it increases the productivity and the efficiency of the organisation (Garavan et al. 2016). The initial step of training and development program is job analysis and the identification of the training needs. According to Wilson (2014), job analysis includes collection, analysis and setting of job information to provide a basis for recruitment, training, evaluating job performance and management. The vital issue of each organisation is the comprehension of the training needs as per the organisations needs and the goals. It is the fundamental step in the training process The training policies in each organisation are set in a manner that reflects its needs and philosophy. On the job training approach is most commonly applicable to many organisations. This type of training is given to the employee at the workplace in his office at desk or machine. The worker gains valuable insights into his work through instructions given during the training. This type of training is mostly unofficial and occurs without any strict preparation. The advantage of this approach is the ease of learning and knowledge obtained with limited expenses. However, its limitation includes the decrease in the service quality with the use of trainees when the clients are present (Tahir et al. 2014). The other approach is the classroom training that is conducted away from the workplace. Thus approach makes use of a wide range of practices such as discussions, lectures, videos, potential enquiries, and role play such that the employees understand the deeper meaning of their future task (Armstrong and Taylor 2014). Role play includes wearing others shoes to understand the course of the job. However, this approach is costly with the requirement of lots of amenities such as classrooms, professionals and technology (Falola et al. 2014). Overview of the Coca-Cola HBC AG Coca-Cola HBC AG or Coca Cola Hellenic is the worlds second largest beverage industry with its shares in the secondary listing on the Athens Stock Exchange. The company was incorporated under the law of Greece in 1969. In 2012, it moved its operational headquarters to Switzerland. The company operates in 3 continents in 28 countries with Greece being its one of the well-established market. Its product line includes the diverse range of ready-to-drink non-alcoholic beverages in the sparkling sport, water, and juice, coffee and tea categories (Corea 2016). Training and development in Coca Cola According to Zempiliadou (2015), the training and development in coca cola are given prime importance for retaining best employees. Over the past few years, the company has strengthened the area of training and development to improve the business performance. The company as a part of the HR strategy thus provides its employees with development programs including internal talent management, employee performance management, and leadership development for managers (Metaxas and Tsavdaridou 2013). The training strategies in this company emphasis on bridging the gap between the needs of customers and that of the organisation. The motive is to train the employees in a manner that does not hamper their creativity and in turn gain an advantage for the company (Faucher 2011). By providing on-the-job learning, coaching and feedback the company ensure that the employees have the necessary resources to learn (Isdell and Beasley 2011). However, coca cola also incorporates fun element in the training programs to make it a great place to work. The aim is to motivate and inspire the staff to become the best they can. The rationale is the use of social learning theory that refers to learning through observation. Employees can modify their behaviour by watching others and reproduce the same (Pendergrast 2013). The training for the senior level managers includes on the job training. It includes the managers to interact with the clients directly or indirectly and provide for the fulfilment of the business (Charalambous 2013). The primary aim of this approach is to mainly seek to improve the leadership skills such that they can better evaluate and modify the companys surroundings and the corresponding results. The managers will be able to identify and develop strategic options to the possible risks. The leaders are also provided with the coaching just for polishing their skills and guiding them in decision making or a deal. The leaders are mainly sent for business conferences to interact with other successful leaders and modify their behaviour (Skouloudis et al. 2011). The managers in the lower level such as the sales managers, customer managers, line or design managers are trained in classrooms as well as on job to teach the required skills that match the business requirement. The training approach mainly used for them is role play where the managers have to shape themselves according to the need of the character. The company reduces its time by using advanced technology such as E-learning where the managers undergo different phases of training at their desk with the computers and attend the conference with the co-managers (Spanos 2016). The company uses guided discussions and the method of storytelling for the middle-level supervisors and assistant managers to enhance their technical skills as the global leaders want innovation for business strength. It is a practical way of teaching with lots of modules where the trainees develop and implement new ideas. This type of training usually occurs in closed rooms with adequate infrastructure (Corea 2016). Zempiliadou (2015) evaluated the training and development program for the employees in Coca Cola and found that it helped in developing the positive attitude among the employees. It helped them in becoming more profit aligned and knowledgeable. Personal workers are benefitted by being able to make better choices. Coca Cola creates a lifestyle of company learning by developing its leaders among the co-workers through the E-Learnings and job training benefits. Coca Cola also uses the employee participation approach to minimise the change resistance in the employees (Metaxas and Tsavdaridou 2013). This method helps to decreases the staff concerns and promotes advancement. The company uses Kirkpatrick's model to evaluate the potency of the leadership management and development programs (Faucher 2011). It is used to calculate the level of attainment of abilities, techniques, behavioural change and information using paper and pencil assessment, job models, and expertise methods. The evalua tion helps to track the business enhancement such as work outcome, cost benefits and the quality changes (Pendergrast 2013). Overview of the Bank of Greece The National Bank of Greece or NBG was established as a commercial bank in 1840. NBG was founded in 1880 and was later introduced at the the Athens Stock Exchange (Spanos 2016). According to Maes (2015) Currently, the bank is comprised of more than 600 domestic banking units in Greece and 283 units overseas and has 1241 ATMs. Training and development in NBG The study executed by Clogg (2013) highlighted that the bank lays immense important on the training and development of the workforce and in enhancing their skills. The bank has sustainably invested in the training and educational programs for their employees over the past years by establishing a Training Centre in 1996 (Koutsogeorgopoulou et al. 2014). Belias et al. (2013) conducted survey and interview at the headquarters in Athens with the managers of the bank. As per the survey, the training approach used in the bank is "on-the-job training for both middle and lower level managers. This type of training is mainly used for the positions on the lower level due to frequent job rotations, and for middle-level managers, it depends on the need of an hour. On the job training in NBG includes basic training, commercial training, banking operations, financial training, administration training, and other computer courses (Maes 2015). The employees at this level are well trained on the usage of the electronic data processing system. The training is to educate the employees on how to provide the customer services and deal with their issues. This program forms the basis of the successful attainment of organisation's aims and also aid in penetrating the foreign market (Koutsogeorgopoulou et al. 2014). Regular feedback is taken from the trainees and the trainers to measure the success of the training approach (Armstrong and Taylor 2014). Since both trainer and trainee are in contact, it is easy to avoid many mistakes and resolve the misunderstandings. This helps to proceed in the valuable and efficient training. Another training approach in NBG is the Distance learning program" which is practised to renovate its business services and achieve a constant endeavour (Clogg 2013). The survey conducted with the managers revealed that NBG ensures that their staffs participate in the seminar and conferences of both national and international level. The seminar consists of 6 months duration, and since they are acquainted with experts of a particular field, the training gives opportunities to the staff to broaden their knowledge and improve their skills. It also gives the opportunity to the learn the services delivered in developed countries and implement them in NBG by combining the positiv e and the negative aspects (Panagiotakopoulos 2011). The training centre at NBG provides E-learning to all the staff. This method is highly preferred in a bank as it reduces the cost. This training method involves the wide range of subjects such as AML issues, management skills, computerised processes, and financial expertise (Angelakopoulos and Mihiotis 2011). The survey further highlighted that NBG provides its staff with the foreign language courses as a part of the off the job training. This training helps staff to develop abilities for delivering higher quality services. It also enhances the communication skills (Armstrong and Taylor 2014). This type of training is applicable for staff at all levels. Learning foreign languages mainly English also helps the workers to better interact with the international clients (Glaveli and Karassavidou 2011). According to Belias et al. (2013), NBG provides training to its employees in the branches abroad according to the Greek standards. The local personnel in abroad are trained in both house and the seminars. The international managers are skilled enough, have precondition skills, and are not provided with intense training. They are trained to enhance the ability to handle every situation encountered in the workplace. To increase participation from staff, the bank is offering certified courses alon g with financial support for gaining international professional certifications programs. Also, NBG has additional programs that are sponsored by the EU. NBG also provides internships for students at undergraduate level. They help students to gain practical training as per the course requirements (Clogg 2013). Comparative analysis Both Coca Cola and NBG train their staff for development and better customer services. These activities have increased business performance, staff morale and business profit. Though both companies have some aim behind training and development, the process of training has minute differences. The difference in training is due to a difference in business operations of both companies. Coca Cola being a beverage industry provides training in the area of customer services related to taste enhancement, quality of food and innovation in the food and drink products, timely delivery of food products (Phillips 2012). On the contrary, NBG being a banking sector provides training and development related to banking operations, IT, issues, management skills, computerised processes, and financial expertise. Coca Cola provides training and development programs, coaching, feedback, E-learning and role-plays required for its staff to develop their profession and career. However, Coca Cola company does not have a training centre or academy like NBG. It does not provide extensive training like NBG. NBG provides training to people other than the employees, but Coca Cola mainly focuses on the development of its existing staff (Isdell and Beasley 2011). NBG does not provide training and development programs to the senior level managers and the internal managers as it recruits high skilled professionals. On the other hand, Coca Cola provides training to the staff at all levels equally. Since both the organisations are well reputed, the process of training is same. Both companies implement on the job training and the of the job training. However, Coca Cola mainly focuses on the on the job training. Unlike NBG, Coca Cola does not provide certified courses for its trainees. Therefore, it can be said that NBG has the higher level of training infrastructure compared to Coca Cola (Belias et al. 2013). Unlike NBG, Coca Cola does not provide education to its employees in the foreign languages. Coca Cola implements the role play approach to training, but NBG does not. Irrespective of the mode of training both the companies provides its employees with the room for growth. However, the management and development activities are stronger in NBG when compared to Coca Cola. NBG keeps its employees busy with goals insight, but the same is not seen in Coca Cola (Phillips 2012). The system of job rotation in banks increases the need of training activities, but beverage companies do not have job rotation system. The difference in training activities between both companies and the need of intense training in banking field is due to higher job security compared to that in Coca Cola (Beier and Kanfer 2010). This justifies the huge training infrastructure in NBG when compared to Coca Cola. On the contrary, the employees in Coca Cola are slightly vulnerable to market forces. Due to fluctuating market conditions, they are vulnerable to the wage levels. Employees in Coca Cola work hard to be competitive in skills and deliver high quality service to avoid being rep laced. However, the frequency of replacing employees in NBG is less although it is mandatory for the employees to meet the performance standards. Job burnout, stress and demotivation are observed in the employees of Coca Cola but not among the employees in NBG. Overall the training and development as a part of the leadership and management in NBG are regular while in Coca Cola the training and development are sometimes based on the need of the specific group of a workforce. It is these human resource management practices that led to the high reputation of both organisations (Phillips 2012). Discussion The training approach in both Coca Cola and NBG is developed with the perspective of the organisation, its objectives and the current challenges. Training and development programs must be developed in the organisation in a way that not only satisfies the employees but also become highly productive (Armstrong and Taylor 2014). These programs increase the technical abilities, work motivation, job confidence, interpersonal skills of the employees and teamwork of the employees (Tahir et al., 2014). Both Coca Cola and NBG create a concern to cure their staff well. The aim is to provide the employees with a fulfilling operating life. Such programs as a part of the leadership management and development activities help the organisation to achieve competitive advantage. Companies should continuously invest in the skills, abilities and knowledge, which are considered to be the determinants of the employees performance (Falola et al. 2014). Employee development is the key to sustainable develop ment of the organisation. Conclusion The paper has exhaustively discussed the training and development in both Coca Cola and NBG. Training and development is the primary tool that helps the human capital to explore their dexterity. It is vital to the productivity of the organisations workforce. The jobs in the banking sector are quite complex therefore the investment in training should not be viewed as the cost to the organisation. The paper recommends that in both NBG and Coca Cola an informal approach for accessing staff performance by laying emphasis on assessing the delivery of practical tasks allocated to the newly employed staff (Armstrong and Taylor 2014). Also, it is recommended that on the job training should be more formalised. It reduces the pressure on the trainers and allows concentrating more on the trainees. It is requested to introduce innovative programs of personality development for the senior managers and also the lower staff. It will help them to build synergy and strengthen the superior and subordi nate relationshipfor overall productivity of the business (Adekola 2011). In short, the HR department should enhance their training programs aligning with the latest demands in the beverage industry and banking sector. Due to increasing sophisticated fraud the banking sector in particular needs strategic techniques (Beier and Kanfer 2010). Countries, where the HR practices are greatly focused on designing and delivery of the training and development of the workforce, have not only obtained the organisational well being but also have become prosperous in this dynamic world. References Adekola, B., 2011. Career Planning and Career Management as Correlates for Career Development and Job Satisfaction. A Case Study of Nigerian Bank Employees..Australian Journal of Business and Management Research,2. Angelakopoulos, G. and Mihiotis, A., 2011. E-banking: challenges and opportunities in the Greek banking sector.Electronic Commerce Research,11(3), pp.297-319. Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014.Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers. Beier, M.E. and Kanfer, R., 2010. Motivation in training and development: A phase perspective.Learning, training, and development in organizations, pp.65-97. Belias, D.I.M.I.T.R.I.O.S. and Koustelios, A.T.H.A.N.A.S.I.O.S., 2013. The influence of gender and educational background of Greek bank employees on their perceptions of organizational culture.International Journal of Human Resource Management and Research,3(5), pp.1-10. Charalambous, G. ed., 2013.Off-flavors in Foods and Beverages(Vol. 28). Elsevier. Clogg, R., 2013.A concise history of Greece. Cambridge University Press. Corea, G., 2016. Global value chain: the Coca-Cola system. Falola, H.O., Osibanjo, A.O. and Ojo, S.I., 2014. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON EMPLOYEES'PERFORMANCE AND ORGANISATION COMPETITIVENESS IN THE NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY.Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Brasov. Economic Sciences. Series V,7(1), p.161. Faucher, J., 2011. Coca-Cola Company.JP Morgan Equity Research, p.2. Garavan, T., Watson, S., Carbery, R. and OBrien, F., 2016. The antecedents of leadership development practices in SMEs: The influence of HRM strategy and practice.International Small Business Journal,34(6), pp.870-890. Glaveli, N. and Karassavidou, E., 2011. Exploring a possible route through which training affects organizational performance: the case of a Greek bank.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,22(14), pp.2892-2923. Isdell, N. and Beasley, D., 2011.Inside Coca-Cola: a CEO's life story of building the world's most popular brand. Macmillan. Koutsogeorgopoulou, V., Matsaganis, M., Leventi, C. and Schneider, J.D., 2014. Fairly sharing the social impact of the crisis in Greece. Maes, I., 2015. South-Eastern European Monetary and Economic Statistics from the Nineteenth Century to World War II (Athens, Sofia, Bucharest and Vienna: Bank of Greece, Bulgarian National Bank, National Bank of Romania and Oesterreichische Nationalbank, 2014, 405 pp.).Financial History Review,22(2), pp.252-254. Martins, L.P., Four-Babb, D., Lazzarin, M.D.L. and Pawlik, J., 2016. [Ir] responsible leadership: addressing management and leadership curricula biases. Metaxas, T. and Tsavdaridou, M., 2013. Corporate social responsibility in Greece during the crisis period.Journal of Advanced Research in Management (JARM), (1 (IV)), pp.20-34. Panagiotakopoulos, A., 2011. Workplace learning and its organizational benefits for small enterprises: Evidence from Greek industrial firms.The Learning Organization,18(5), pp.350-360. Pendergrast, M., 2013.For god, country, and coca-cola. Basic Books. Phillips, J.J., 2012.Return on investment in training and performance improvement programs. Routledge. Skouloudis, A., Evangelinos, K. and Nikolaou, I., 2011. An overview of corporate social responsibility in Greece: perceptions, developments and barriers to overcome.Business Ethics: A European Review,20(2), pp.205-226. Spanos, L., 2016. Complementarity and Interconnection between CSR and Crowdfunding: A Case Study in Greece. Tahir, N., Yousafzai, I.K., Jan, S. and Hashim, M., 2014. The Impact of Training and Development on Employees Performance and Productivity A case study of United Bank Limited Peshawar City, KPK, Pakistan.International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences,4(4), p.86. Thorpe, R., 2016.Gower handbook of leadership and management development. CRC Press. Wilson, J.P., 2014. International human resource development: Learning, education and training for individuals and organisations.Development and Learning in Organizations,28(2). Zempiliadou, S., 2015. The Adoption of Employee Performance Appraisal Systems and their Effectiveness in Corporate Greece.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Organization Analysis of NYS Dept of Taxation and Finances

Organization’s structure NYS department of taxation and finances is logically organized. In most cases, tasks are done by a team, as opposed to breaking it down to accomplished by an individual employee. In IT, working in a team is preferable to working individually.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Organization Analysis of NYS Dept of Taxation and Finances specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because software and hardware problems are sometimes complex and therefore, requires to be input from different people working in a team to come up with a proper solution. There are some bureaus where tasks are subdivided into separate jobs. In data warehousing for instance, there are those taking care of database and those whose work is programming. Jobs are grouped according to departments and sub-categories falling under departments. Departmentalization as a basis of grouping jobs together considers ba sic activities that require to be carried out for the organization to deliver required output (Baligh, 2006). Departmentalization can be done based on functions, product, geographical areas, process or customer. At NYS Dept of Taxation and finances, departmentalization is done based on functions. Activities are grouped according to work done to leverage on shared skills. Under technology management, jobs are further grouped together around a certain specialty in technology, such as database. Hence, we have database administrators under database, and network management under IT infrastructure. Chain of command is important in an organization. It help clarify reporting relationships, enhances responsibility, employees can easily acquire resources requires over the chain, and introduces simplicity (Tsukamoto, 2003). The chain of command may, however, impede free flow of information, and frustrate decision making in today’s world where decisions requires to be made faster (Dess, Lumpkin Eisner, 2010). At NYS Dept of Taxation and finances, the chain of command is clear. The teams under each department have a higher reporting authority. For instance, in the Enterprise Storage Management where I (A. Richard ITS2 p/18) am based, we report to S. Mayo. In management, Span of control is taken to mean the number of workers reporting to a one manager (Baligh, 2006). When the span of control is narrow, the organizational structure must necessarily be hierarchical. A broad span of control produces a flat structure.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In designing the organizational structure of an organization, the biggest question remains how to come up with an optimal manager to employee’s ratio without jeopardizing productivity. NYS Dept of Taxation and finances has a narrow span of control. This is possibly because the work done is reliant on technology, which is complicated to some extent. Also, most of the work in the department is through teams. An organizational structure represents a chain of command. At the top is the senior manager who is involved in matters of strategy. The technical aspects of strategy are worked out by lower lever managers and employees (Joyce Woods, 2001). Major decision making lies with the senior manager who in the case of NYS Dept of Taxation and finances is the assistant director ITS. Further down in the structure, heads of divisions of the bureaus are involved in decision making. Public organization normally operates in a very formal way as opposed to small businesses and upstarts. Upstarts works best in a less formal way, because their products or services are usually innovative (Daft, 2010). As the organization becomes big, it increases in complexity, because it also produces complex products and services. For an organization such as NYS Dept of Taxation and finances, rules and regulat ions are important to direct managers and employees. The IT department requires general directions as opposed to specific rules to follow. This is because IT requires a healthy dose of creative thinking for the simple reason that technology keeps on changing very fast (Hitt, Ireland Hoskisson, 2011). Regulations should be imposed to the extent the department’s goals, such as security, are achieved. Technology Much of the stride made in increasing productivity in the workplace is as a result of adopting new technologies. Technology is now one of the hottest topics in the world of business. All organizations, large or small, are racing to adopt the latest technology in what they do as a business. In an organization process, a new technology is likely to increase efficiency and hence boost profitability. For example, adopting information process in tax collection process will help tax department achieve the cannons of taxation, such as economy and convenience. In a sales proces s, customers can easily acquire goods and services. Therefore, technology generally makes things easier for the businesses. Although adopting new, emerging, and relevant technologies is smart, it may nevertheless cause problems in organization processes. A new technology portends change, and people are afraid of change. The problems that technology may cause to a specific organization process are essentially problems related to employee’s inability to fit in a new environment driven a new technology.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Organization Analysis of NYS Dept of Taxation and Finances specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If for instance a new technology was introduced to drive sales, products sold may initially go down before picking up or exceeding previous levels. In tax collection, adopting internet technologies in filing returns may lead to delays in filing returns initially, but later the p roblem does not recur as people learn. Adopting a new technology may render workers redundant. Offloading excessive employees is good, but unemployment increases. A simple technology such as personal computer has the potential to change an organization that does not use computers massively. The same case applies to a goods producing company that adopts computer-aided manufacturing. By adopting the right communication technologies, it’s possible for a large organization to have a larger span of control in its structure without compromising productivity. Technology can also make the relationship between employees and managers more engaging. In general, implanting a technology and information systems have the ability to introduce change in an organization completely (Mangham Mangham, 1987). An erstwhile inefficient organization can, through technology, become very efficient. There are those entrenched cultures that are difficult t change except by adapting new technology. Adopt ing internet and communication technologies may, for instance, enhance communication and dialogue between employees and the management in an organization where this kind of communication was absent. Technology can enhance interpersonal relationship or increase distance between employer and employees (Finlay, 2000). For example, it’s possible for the manager to keep communicating often with a team leader at the head f the project through video. In the same breath, lack of direct face-to-face communication lacks the characteristic human quality that makes people truly bond. Also, internet and communication technologies make it possible to stay connected throughout. This makes it easier to do business and monitor employees. Implementing a new technology is an involving process. Training is required to familiarize employees on the new technology, and it’s a process that requires a lot of resources (Haberberg Rieple, 2007). Training is also required to change the attitudes of employees, not just increasing their technical competence to handle the technology (Clegg, 1990). The success envisaged on implementation of the technology depends partly on the cooperation of employees. Implementing a new technology may require additional extra equipments which the company must acquire. As noted earlier, technology brings change, which may be reason for adopting the technology in the first place (Alkhafaji, 2003). In that case, change management is important. Leadership is also required.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Environment NYS Dept of Taxation and finances is a public institution which interacts with a lot of players, both inside and outside the organization. All these players have competing interests. The biggest problem the organization encounter is how to keep everybody happy. Tax payers expect fast and efficient service. Anything less than that will lead to complains. Government authorities also expect people to get minimum quality of service and anything less than that is unacceptable to it. Other players also have their own demands as well as expectations that must be considered. There is also the scrutiny from the media and other consumer rights groups. This put the department under tremendous pressure. Strategy is developed in response to the results of analysis of the internal environment as well as external environment (Burack, 1975). As such, therefore, it’s the senior manager who pays attention to the forces in the environment. Once the forces are identified, appropriate actions can be instituted. The lower cadre employees are the ones responsible for execution of strategy as developed by the management. NYS Dept of Taxation and finances plays the important role of dealing with taxes. Such a role is necessarily sensitive and the department must be efficient. Deploying the right technology, and doing so flawlessly is a strategic action that must be hatched by the top management, but executed by the lower cadre technical staff (Thompson Martin, 2010). Most of the difficulties that the department face or may face stem from their operational efficiency or lack of it. To provide superior service, the first they need is to continually deploy the latest technology in information and internet technology. The management should also set up a strong consumer service/public relation department to engage outside parties. Perceptions can be changed or modified. The best way to do this is by engaging those likely to change or sway public opinion. The department also has a number of unfilled vacancies. There is no reason why they should continue to be vacant. Integration The department is in the business of collecting taxes and managing finances, as well as providing support infrastructure for doing the same. The work is divided according to functions. Specific functions are carried out by employees hired for that purposes. They could be programmers or database administrators. NYS Dept of Taxation and finances has a logical organization structure with a narrow span of control. It is easy to manager employees. Also, the employees can communicate easily among the management through the internet. A challenging job done well gives immense satisfaction. Some of the tasks there are accomplished in a team. Working in a team is very rewarding. Another reward is of course the salary the employees get. The various bureaus have persons mandated to manage them. These managers themselves are answerable to senior managers at the top. Through these leader s, the whole department is intact and can execute its mandate. Internet and communication technologies are deployed to help coordinate the functions of the department. References Alkhafaji, A. F. (2003). Strategic management: formulation, implementation, and control in a dynamic environment. New York: Haworth Press. Baligh, H. H. (2006). Organization structures theory and design, analysis and prescription. New York: Springer. Burack, E. H. (1975). Organization analysis: theory and applications. Hinsdale, Ill.: Dryden Press. Clegg, S. (1990). Organization theory and class analysis: new approaches and new issues. Berlin: W. de Gruyter. Daft, R. L. (2010). Organization theory and design (10th ed.). Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning. Dess, G. G., Lumpkin, G. T., Eisner, A. B. (2010). Strategic management: creating competitive advantages (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Finlay, P. N. (2000). Strategic management: an introduction to business and corporate strategy. New Y ork: Pearson Education. Haberberg, A., Rieple, A. (2007). Strategic management: theory and application. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., Hoskisson, R. E. (2011). Strategic management: competitiveness globalization : concepts (9th ed.). Australia: South-Western Cengage Learning. Joyce, P., Woods, A. (2001). Strategic management: a fresh approach to developing skills, knowledge and creativity. London: Kogan Page. Mangham, I. L., Mangham, I. L. (1987). Organization analysis and development: a social construction of organizational behaviour. Chichester [West Sussex: Wiley. Thompson, J. L., Martin, F. (2010). Strategic management (6th ed.). Andover: Cengage Learning. Tsukamoto, S. (2003). Human nature and organization theory: on the economic approach to institutional organization. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. This research paper on Organization Analysis of NYS Dept of Taxation and Finances was written and submitted by user Damarion U. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

The US Ethnic Groups the Hispanic Americans

The US Ethnic Groups the Hispanic Americans Currently, the total number of Hispanic Americans is about 41 million, which is approximately 15 percent of the total US population. There are several ethnic groups which constitute the Hispanic Americans including Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and Cubans among others.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The US Ethnic Groups: the Hispanic Americans specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More All the Hispanic ethnic groups are linked by a common language and a unique culture. Of all the Hispanic Americans ethnic groups in the US, the Mexican is the largest, followed by Puerto Ricans, and then Cubans. Different ethnic groups of Hispanic Americans came to the US in varied ways. The Mexicans for instance, came to the US as immigrants and were the first Hispanic group to cross the US border. The American Southwest was part of the Mexico territory before the battle of 1848. After the war, the Mexicans who were living in that regio n were absorbed into the US. Puerto Rico became a territory of the US in the year 1898 following a war and the dwellers were absorbed in the US. The Cubans have come to the US as legal immigrants during the past four decades. On the other hand, Dominicans have also migrated to the in the last two decades. The population of the Hispanic Americans has increased rapidly and is now the fastest growing minority groups in the US. In addition to the increasing population, the Hispanic Americans have a high number of its population comprising of the young people. The current statistics reveal that the number of middle-aged Hispanic is approximately 27 percent compared to the 40 percent of the white population. However, despite of the growing numbers of Hispanic Americans, most of them are concentrated in only a few states. In terms of social status, the Hispanic Americans occupy the middle position. They are slightly below Euro-Americans, but above African-Americans. Lower education level, discrimination in the work place, and working in least-skilled and low paying jobs are some of the factors that have caused Hispanic Americans to have low income wages.Advertising Looking for essay on ethnicity studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the Cubans have adapted well and are placed at a better position than any other ethnic group of the Hispanic American. Cubans are more educated and their income is relatively high. The reason for their success is because some of the Cubans who came earlier to US were skilled and well educated. The government should encourage equal distribution of resources. In terms of politics, the Hispanic Americans have not acquired strong influence in the society. With the majority of the population being under 18 years, they cannot vote and, therefore, have less say in the political arena. As such, the political power of the Hispanic Americans has not been realized. The go vernment should set aside certain posts for minority groups so that they can exercise their democratic rights. Because the Hispanic Americans are a minority group in the American society, they continue to face discrimination in the society. However, they do not receive a lot of discrimination as compared to African-Americans. Definitely, the future survival and success of Hispanic Americans will fully depend on the kind of adaptation this group will make so that they can easily be integrated in the American society. It is clear that Hispanic Americans population is growing rapidly in the US. Although this group is, it is slowly adapting into the American system and is now trying to establish itself in the social, economic, and political spheres. However, lack of education, discrimination, and issues of immigration have continued to affect this group negatively. The Americans should embrace culture diversity to comfortably live with others regardless of race or ethnicity. The governm ent should develop strategies of empowering minority groups so that they can easily be assimilated in the system. This will promote social change in America.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Cultural Imperialism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Cultural Imperialism - Essay Example Since media plays a vital role in the cultural lives of millions of people and the fact that media sector is by and large controlled by Western interests, there have been arguments in favor of the idea ‘cultural imperialism’. Although the central postulate of cultural imperialism thesis remains valid due to the lopsidedness in the global media market, the so-called cultural imperialism through the Western cultural products cannot be seen as one sided as the theorists of cultural imperialism perspective understood it to be. In the light of the recent developments taking place in the media sector, especially the regional media in the developing countries and the changes bought by the new media technologies, this paper intends to present the basic theoretical tenets of cultural imperialism and the challenges to it from various perspectives. The core concern of the essay is to examine what is remaining relevant with the arguments and concerns regarding cultural imperialism a nd the criticisms provided by the contesting theoretical doctrines from the vantage point of the tremendous transformations occurring with the global media culture from the very beginning of twenty first century. Explaining Cultural Imperialism The widespread availability of American cultural products such as music, television channels, entertainment and informational commodities is one of the important factors that enable the lopsided influence of American culture over the rest of the world. Therefore, Schiller famously defines cultural imperialism as "the sum of processes by which a society is brought into the modern world system and how its dominating stratum is attracted, pressured, forced, and sometimes bribed into shaping social institutions to correspond to, or even promote, the values and structures of the dominating centre of the system" (Schiller, 1976: 9). Importantly, Schiller (1969) has found a common ground between the study of media dominance and theories of economic imperialism. For him, it is necessary to look at theories such as world systems and dependency theories in order to explore the dynamics of domination in the sphere of communication. For Schiller, it is nothing but the viability of American indu strial economy that furthers "the movements towards international commercialization of broadcasting" (Schiller, 1969: 9). And, hence, the enhanced spread of cultural imperialism. On the economic realm, the proliferation of American products has a penetrating impact over the determination of the cultural aspects of the lives of millions of people from outside the United States. Many theorists have almost equated cultural imperialism with American cultural imperialism as if the United States alone is the conductor of the concert of global cultural imperialism. What is important to note that there is no single culture that alone oppresses other cultures. With reference to the nation state as the overwhelming reality in the modern world, it is possible to classify cultural imperialism as cultural imperia